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PART 91—GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES


 

Section Contents

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50–2—Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of the Grand Canyon National Park, AZ
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60—Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 79—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Flight Information Region (FIR) of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 97—Special Operating Rules for the Conduct of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in Alaska
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 104—Prohibition Against Certain Flights by Syrian Air Carriers to the United States
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 108—Mitsubishi MU–2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements

Subpart A—General

§ 91.1   Applicability.
§ 91.3   Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command.
§ 91.5   Pilot in command of aircraft requiring more than one required pilot.
§ 91.7   Civil aircraft airworthiness.
§ 91.9   Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.
§ 91.11   Prohibition on interference with crewmembers.
§ 91.13   Careless or reckless operation.
§ 91.15   Dropping objects.
§ 91.17   Alcohol or drugs.
§ 91.19   Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.
§ 91.21   Portable electronic devices.
§ 91.23   Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.
§ 91.25   Aviation Safety Reporting Program: Prohibition against use of reports for enforcement purposes.
§§ 91.27-91.99   [Reserved]

Subpart B—Flight Rules

General
§ 91.101   Applicability.
§ 91.103   Preflight action.
§ 91.105   Flight crewmembers at stations.
§ 91.107   Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.
§ 91.109   Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.
§ 91.111   Operating near other aircraft.
§ 91.113   Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.
§ 91.115   Right-of-way rules: Water operations.
§ 91.117   Aircraft speed.
§ 91.119   Minimum safe altitudes: General.
§ 91.121   Altimeter settings.
§ 91.123   Compliance with ATC clearances and instructions.
§ 91.125   ATC light signals.
§ 91.126   Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.
§ 91.127   Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace.
§ 91.129   Operations in Class D airspace.
§ 91.130   Operations in Class C airspace.
§ 91.131   Operations in Class B airspace.
§ 91.133   Restricted and prohibited areas.
§ 91.135   Operations in Class A airspace.
§ 91.137   Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas.
§ 91.138   Temporary flight restrictions in national disaster areas in the State of Hawaii.
§ 91.139   Emergency air traffic rules.
§ 91.141   Flight restrictions in the proximity of the Presidential and other parties.
§ 91.143   Flight limitation in the proximity of space flight operations.
§ 91.144   Temporary restriction on flight operations during abnormally high barometric pressure conditions.
§ 91.145   Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events.
§ 91.146   Passenger-carrying flights for the benefit of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event.
§ 91.147   Passenger carrying flights for compensation or hire.
§§ 91.148-91.149   [Reserved]

Visual Flight Rules
§ 91.151   Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.
§ 91.153   VFR flight plan: Information required.
§ 91.155   Basic VFR weather minimums.
§ 91.157   Special VFR weather minimums.
§ 91.159   VFR cruising altitude or flight level.
§ 91.161   Special awareness training required for pilots flying under visual flight rules within a 60-nautical mile radius of the Washington, DC VOR/DME.
§§ 91.162-91.165   [Reserved]

Instrument Flight Rules
§ 91.167   Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions.
§ 91.169   IFR flight plan: Information required.
§ 91.171   VOR equipment check for IFR operations.
§ 91.173   ATC clearance and flight plan required.
§ 91.175   Takeoff and landing under IFR.
§ 91.177   Minimum altitudes for IFR operations.
§ 91.179   IFR cruising altitude or flight level.
§ 91.180   Operations within airspace designated as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum airspace.
§ 91.181   Course to be flown.
§ 91.183   IFR communications.
§ 91.185   IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.
§ 91.187   Operation under IFR in controlled airspace: Malfunction reports.
§ 91.189   Category II and III operations: General operating rules.
§ 91.191   Category II and Category III manual.
§ 91.193   Certificate of authorization for certain Category II operations.
§§ 91.195-91.199   [Reserved]

Subpart C—Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements

§ 91.201   [Reserved]
§ 91.203   Civil aircraft: Certifications required.
§ 91.205   Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.
§ 91.207   Emergency locator transmitters.
§ 91.209   Aircraft lights.
§ 91.211   Supplemental oxygen.
§ 91.213   Inoperative instruments and equipment.
§ 91.215   ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.
§ 91.217   Data correspondence between automatically reported pressure altitude data and the pilot's altitude reference.
§ 91.219   Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.
§ 91.221   Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.
§ 91.223   Terrain awareness and warning system.
§ 91.225   Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Out equipment and use.
§ 91.227   Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS–B) Out equipment performance requirements.
§§ 91.228-91.299   [Reserved]

Subpart D—Special Flight Operations

§ 91.301   [Reserved]
§ 91.303   Aerobatic flight.
§ 91.305   Flight test areas.
§ 91.307   Parachutes and parachuting.
§ 91.309   Towing: Gliders and unpowered ultralight vehicles.
§ 91.311   Towing: Other than under §91.309.
§ 91.313   Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.315   Limited category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.317   Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.319   Aircraft having experimental certificates: Operating limitations.
§ 91.321   Carriage of candidates in elections.
§ 91.323   Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.
§ 91.325   Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.
§ 91.327   Aircraft having a special airworthiness certificate in the light-sport category: Operating limitations.
§§ 91.328-91.399   [Reserved]

Subpart E—Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations

§ 91.401   Applicability.
§ 91.403   General.
§ 91.405   Maintenance required.
§ 91.407   Operation after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration.
§ 91.409   Inspections.
§ 91.410   [Reserved]
§ 91.411   Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections.
§ 91.413   ATC transponder tests and inspections.
§ 91.415   Changes to aircraft inspection programs.
§ 91.417   Maintenance records.
§ 91.419   Transfer of maintenance records.
§ 91.421   Rebuilt engine maintenance records.
§§ 91.423-91.499   [Reserved]

Subpart F—Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft

§ 91.501   Applicability.
§ 91.503   Flying equipment and operating information.
§ 91.505   Familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment.
§ 91.507   Equipment requirements: Over-the-top or night VFR operations.
§ 91.509   Survival equipment for overwater operations.
§ 91.511   Communication and navigation equipment for overwater operations.
§ 91.513   Emergency equipment.
§ 91.515   Flight altitude rules.
§ 91.517   Passenger information.
§ 91.519   Passenger briefing.
§ 91.521   Shoulder harness.
§ 91.523   Carry-on baggage.
§ 91.525   Carriage of cargo.
§ 91.527   Operating in icing conditions.
§ 91.529   Flight engineer requirements.
§ 91.531   Second in command requirements.
§ 91.533   Flight attendant requirements.
§ 91.535   Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing.
§§ 91.536-91.599   [Reserved]

Subpart G—Additional Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft

§ 91.601   Applicability.
§ 91.603   Aural speed warning device.
§ 91.605   Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.
§ 91.607   Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.
§ 91.609   Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.
§ 91.611   Authorization for ferry flight with one engine inoperative.
§ 91.613   Materials for compartment interiors.
§§ 91.615-91.699   [Reserved]

Subpart H—
Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of U.S.-Registered Civil Aircraft Outside of the United States; and Rules Governing Persons on Board Such Aircraft

§ 91.701   Applicability.
§ 91.702   Persons on board.
§ 91.703   Operations of civil aircraft of U.S. registry outside of the United States.
§ 91.705   Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.
§ 91.706   Operations within airspace designed as Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.
§ 91.707   Flights between Mexico or Canada and the United States.
§ 91.709   Operations to Cuba.
§ 91.711   Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.
§ 91.713   Operation of civil aircraft of Cuban registry.
§ 91.715   Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft.
§§ 91.717-91.799   [Reserved]

Subpart I—Operating Noise Limits

§ 91.801   Applicability: Relation to part 36.
§ 91.803   Part 125 operators: Designation of applicable regulations.
§ 91.805   Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.
§§ 91.807-91.813   [Reserved]
§ 91.815   Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.
§ 91.817   Civil aircraft sonic boom.
§ 91.819   Civil supersonic airplanes that do not comply with part 36.
§ 91.821   Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.
§§ 91.823-91.849   [Reserved]
§ 91.851   Definitions.
§ 91.853   Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.
§ 91.855   Entry and nonaddition rule.
§ 91.857   Stage 2 operations outside of the 48 contiguous United States.
§ 91.858   Special flight authorizations for non-revenue Stage 2 operations.
§ 91.859   Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.
§ 91.861   Base level.
§ 91.863   Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.
§ 91.865   Phased compliance for operators with base level.
§ 91.867   Phased compliance for new entrants.
§ 91.869   Carry-forward compliance.
§ 91.871   Waivers from interim compliance requirements.
§ 91.873   Waivers from final compliance.
§ 91.875   Annual progress reports.
§ 91.877   Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.
§§ 91.879-91.899   [Reserved]

Subpart J—Waivers

§ 91.901   [Reserved]
§ 91.903   Policy and procedures.
§ 91.905   List of rules subject to waivers.
§§ 91.907-91.999   [Reserved]

Subpart K—Fractional Ownership Operations

§ 91.1001   Applicability.
§ 91.1002   Compliance date.
§ 91.1003   Management contract between owner and program manager.
§ 91.1005   Prohibitions and limitations.
§ 91.1007   Flights conducted under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter.

Operational Control
§ 91.1009   Clarification of operational control.
§ 91.1011   Operational control responsibilities and delegation.
§ 91.1013   Operational control briefing and acknowledgment.

Program Management
§ 91.1014   Issuing or denying management specifications.
§ 91.1015   Management specifications.
§ 91.1017   Amending program manager's management specifications.
§ 91.1019   Conducting tests and inspections.
§ 91.1021   Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.
§ 91.1023   Program operating manual requirements.
§ 91.1025   Program operating manual contents.
§ 91.1027   Recordkeeping.
§ 91.1029   Flight scheduling and locating requirements.
§ 91.1031   Pilot in command or second in command: Designation required.
§ 91.1033   Operating information required.
§ 91.1035   Passenger awareness.
§ 91.1037   Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports.
§ 91.1039   IFR takeoff, approach and landing minimums.
§ 91.1041   Aircraft proving and validation tests.
§ 91.1043   [Reserved]
§ 91.1045   Additional equipment requirements.
§ 91.1047   Drug and alcohol misuse education program.
§ 91.1049   Personnel.
§ 91.1050   Employment of former FAA employees.
§ 91.1051   Pilot safety background check.
§ 91.1053   Crewmember experience.
§ 91.1055   Pilot operating limitations and pairing requirement.
§ 91.1057   Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.
§ 91.1059   Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.
§ 91.1061   Augmented flight crews.
§ 91.1062   Duty periods and rest requirements: Flight attendants.
§ 91.1063   Testing and training: Applicability and terms used.
§ 91.1065   Initial and recurrent pilot testing requirements.
§ 91.1067   Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.
§ 91.1069   Flight crew: Instrument proficiency check requirements.
§ 91.1071   Crewmember: Tests and checks, grace provisions, training to accepted standards.
§ 91.1073   Training program: General.
§ 91.1075   Training program: Special rules.
§ 91.1077   Training program and revision: Initial and final approval.
§ 91.1079   Training program: Curriculum.
§ 91.1081   Crewmember training requirements.
§ 91.1083   Crewmember emergency training.
§ 91.1085   Hazardous materials recognition training.
§ 91.1087   Approval of aircraft simulators and other training devices.
§ 91.1089   Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).
§ 91.1091   Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).
§ 91.1093   Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).
§ 91.1095   Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator).
§ 91.1097   Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.
§ 91.1099   Crewmember initial and recurrent training requirements.
§ 91.1101   Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.
§ 91.1103   Pilots: Initial, transition, upgrade, requalification, and differences flight training.
§ 91.1105   Flight attendants: Initial and transition ground training.
§ 91.1107   Recurrent training.
§ 91.1109   Aircraft maintenance: Inspection program.
§ 91.1111   Maintenance training.
§ 91.1113   Maintenance recordkeeping.
§ 91.1115   Inoperable instruments and equipment.
§ 91.1411   Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.
§ 91.1413   CAMP: Responsibility for airworthiness.
§ 91.1415   CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports.
§ 91.1417   CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.
§ 91.1423   CAMP: Maintenance organization.
§ 91.1425   CAMP: Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration programs.
§ 91.1427   CAMP: Manual requirements.
§ 91.1429   CAMP: Required inspection personnel.
§ 91.1431   CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.
§ 91.1433   CAMP: Maintenance and preventive maintenance training program.
§ 91.1435   CAMP: Certificate requirements.
§ 91.1437   CAMP: Authority to perform and approve maintenance.
§ 91.1439   CAMP: Maintenance recording requirements.
§ 91.1441   CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records.
§ 91.1443   CAMP: Airworthiness release or aircraft maintenance log entry.

Subpart L—Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements

§ 91.1501   Purpose and definition.
§ 91.1503   [Reserved]
§ 91.1505   Repairs assessment for pressurized fuselages.
§ 91.1507   Fuel tank system inspection program.

Subpart M—Special Federal Aviation Regulations

§ 91.1603   Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR).
Appendix A to Part 91—Category II Operations: Manual, Instruments, Equipment, and Maintenance
Appendix B to Part 91—Authorizations To Exceed Mach 1 (§91.817)
Appendix C to Part 91—Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace
Appendix D to Part 91—Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions
Appendix E to Part 91—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications
Appendix F to Part 91—Helicopter Flight Recorder Specifications
Appendix G to Part 91—Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace